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Summary[ edit ] Tarnas argues that the movement from the Greek and Christian world views, through modernity and to postmodernism can be seen as a natural and dialectical unfolding of a collective mind or psyche.
He then argues that with the advent of postmodernism, the modern world is in a serious spiritual crisiswhich manifests as the global ecological crisis. He proposes that a potential resolution, which he calls the participatory frameworkhas also been in development in the West for centuries.
Tarnas first describes the ancient world view, in which the self is undifferentiated from the world-soul in a participation mystique.
The rise of the great monotheistic religions began with the Axial age in the sixth century BCE. In monotheistic religion, god is transcendent.
The cosmos became a de-sacralized object, which is no longer imbued with divinity and meaning. Mankind began to see the world as an objective reality which can be studied by science and manipulated with technology. The human subject, on the other hand, became empowered, liberated, and autonomous.
With the Scientific Revolutionand subsequent secularization of Europe, the overwhelming success of science and technology eroded belief in the existence of the transcendent god. Eventually, mankind became disenchanted with and alienated from the world.
Finally, in postmodern thoughtmeaning is seen as projected onto or constructed in an empty, meaningless world. Thus the modern condition begins as a Promethean movement toward human freedom, toward autonomy from the encompassing matrix of nature, toward individuation from the collective, yet gradually and ineluctably the Cartesian-Kantian condition evolves into a Kafka-Beckett-like state of existential isolation and absurdity--an intolerable double bind leading to a kind of deconstructive frenzy.
The human mind has abstracted from the whole all conscious intelligence and purpose and meaning, and claimed these exclusively for itself, and then projected onto the world a machine.
As Rupert Sheldrake has pointed out, this is the ultimate anthropomorphic projection: From this perspective, it is the modern mind's own impersonal soullessness that has been projected from within onto the world--or, to be more precise, that has been projectively elicited from the world.
Tarnas' proposed way out of this " Cartesian - Kantian epistemological box"  involves a participatory epistemology: This participatory epistemology, developed in different ways by Goethe, Hegel, Steiner, and others, can be understood not as a regression to naive participation mystique, but as the dialectical synthesis of the long evolution from the primordial undifferentiated consciousness through the dualistic alienation.
It incorporates the postmodern understanding of knowledge and yet goes beyond it. The interpretive and constructive character of human cognition is fully acknowledged, but the intimate, interpenetrating and all-permeating relationship of nature to the human being and human mind allows the Kantian consequence of epistemological alienation to be entirely overcome.
The paper discussed the idea that contemporary science appears to have started overcoming the duality which separates humans from nature. What can man do in a deterministic universe in which he is a stranger? This is the anxiety expressed in so many recent writings, like those of Richard Tarnas, who writes "For the deepest passion of the Western mind has been to reunite with the ground of its being.
Berman then wrote that Tarnas "argues for a biological mysticism", and called Tarnas' theory escapistregressivetotalitarianand utopian. MacLaren wrote that Passion "triggered a desire to understand my own belief system and how it connected to the universal issues of being human".
Passion inspired MacLaren to go to graduate school to study world religions, mythology, and depth psychology.Sen. Richard Shelby (R-AL) said that he would not stick around and be President Trump’s “whipping boy” if he was in the position of his former colleague, Attorney General Jeff Sessions, the Birmingham News reports..
Said Shelby: “Absolutely not. Whipping Boy was an established position at the English court during the Tudor and Stuart monarchies of the 15th and 16th centuries. This may not have been quite as bad as it sounds.
The whipping boys weren't hapless street urchins living a life of torment, but high-born companions to the royal princes. Richard Siddle: we can’t blame currency for all our problems.
There is not a drinks business in the country that was not affected to some extent by the collapse in the value of . The Whipping Boy The Whipping Boy is a short story, written by Richard Gibney in , and used for the written English exams in the summer of in Denmark.
Meaning of whipping boy with illustrations and photos. Pronunciation of whipping boy and it's etymology. Related words - whipping boy synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. "Richard I" by Jacob Abbott.
The spirit of the runaway boy is whipping him with nettles. With Richard O'Sullivan, Christopher Benjamin, David Daker, Michael Deeks.
The Duke of Hertford sends Colonel Moat to take care of Turpin after being robbed by him. Both Dick and Captain Spiker used to serve under Moat at Gibraltar.