Overview[ edit ] Critical theory German: Critical Theory is a social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole, in contrast to traditional theory oriented only to understanding or explaining it. Horkheimer wanted to distinguish critical theory as a radical, emancipatory form of Marxian theory, critiquing both the model of science put forward by logical positivism and what he and his colleagues saw as the covert positivism and authoritarianism of orthodox Marxism and Communism.
Definition[ edit ] In Marchthe Advertising Research Foundation announced the first definition of customer engagement  as "turning on a prospect to a brand idea enhanced by the surrounding context.
According to Forrester Consulting's research init has defined customer engagement as "creating deep connections with customers that drive purchase decisions, interaction, and participation, over time".
Studies by the Economist Intelligence Unit result in defining customer engagement as, "an intimate long-term relationship with the customer".
Both of these concepts prescribe that customer engagement is attributed by a rich association formed with customers. With aspects of relationship marketing and service-dominant perspectives, customer engagement can be loosely defined as "consumers' proactive contributions in co-creating their personalized experiences and perceived value with organizations through active, explicit, and ongoing dialogue and interactions".
The book, Best Digital Marketing Campaigns In The World, defines customer engagement as, "mutually beneficial relationships with a constantly growing community of online consumers".
The various definitions of customer engagement are diversified by different perspectives and contexts of the engagement process. These are determined by the brand, product, or service, the audience profile, attitudes and behaviours, and messages and channels of communication that are used to interact with the customer.
Sincea number of new definitions have been proposed in literature. Engagement gets manifested in the various interactions that customers undertake, which in turn get shaped up by individual cultures. This progressive customer environment requires direct communication with customers so that they are involved in the process, giving them control in exchange for their attention, to increase brand awareness and loyalty, and to earn word of mouth.
The widespread adoption of the internet during the late s has enhanced the processes of customer engagement, in particular, the way in which it can now be measured in different ways on different levels of engagement.
It is a recent social phenomenon where people engage online in communities that do not necessarily revolve around a particular product, but serve as meeting or networking places.
This online engagement has brought about both the empowerment of consumers and the opportunity for businesses to engage with their target customers online.
Due to the fragmentation and specialisation of media and audiences, as well as the proliferation of community- and user generated contentbusinesses are increasingly losing the power to dictate the communications agenda. Simultaneously, lower switching coststhe geographical widening of the market and the vast choice of content, services and products available online have weakened customer loyalty.
Enhancing customers' firm- and market- related expertise has been shown to engage customers,  strengthen their loyalty,  and emotionally tie them more closely to a firm. Connectivity is bringing consumers and organisations together, which makes it critical for companies to take advantage and focus on capturing the attention of and interacting with well-informed consumers in order to serve and satisfy.
Connecting with customers establishes exclusivity in their experience, which potentially will increase brand loyalty, word of mouth, and provides businesses with valuable consumer analytics, insight, and retention.
Customer engagement can come in the form of a view, an impression, reach, a click, a comment, or a share, among many others. These are ways in which analytics and insights into customer engagement can now be measured on different levels, all of which is information that allows businesses to record and process results of customer engagement.
Taking into consideration the widespread information and connections for consumers, the way to develop penetrable customer engagement is to proactively connect with customers by listening.
Listening will empower the consumer, give them control, and endorse a customer-centric two-way dialogue. This dialogue will redefine the role of the consumer as they no longer assume the end user role in the process.
Particularly since the internet has provided consumers with the accumulation of much diverse knowledge and understanding, consumers now have increasingly high expectations, developed stronger sensory perceptions, and hence have become more attracted to experiential values.
Therefore, it would only be profitable for businesses to submit to the new criteria, to provide the opportunity for consumers to further immerse in the consumption experience. This experience will involve organisations and consumers sharing and exchanging information, which will generate increased awareness, interest, desire to purchase, retention, and loyalty among consumers, evolving an intimate relationship.
Significantly, total openness and strengthening customer service is the selling point here for customers, to make them feel more involved rather than just a number. This will earn trust, engagement, and ultimately word of mouth through endless social circles. Essentially, it is a more dynamic and transparent concept of customer relationship management CRM.
Marketing value[ edit ] Customer engagement marketing is necessitated by a combination of social, technological and market developments. Companies attempt to create an engaging dialogue with target consumers and stimulate their engagement with the given brand.
Although this must take place both on and off-line, the internet is considered the primary method. Marketing begins with understanding the internal dynamics of these developments and the behaviour and engagement of consumers online. Consumer-generated media plays a significant role in the understanding and modeling of engagement.
ContextWeb analysts found marketers who promote on sites like Facebook and New York Times are not as successful at reaching consumers while marketers who promote more on niche websites have a better chance of reaching their audiences. Rather than trying to position a product using static messages, companies can become the subject of conversation amongst a target market that has already discussed, positioned and rated the product.
This also means that consumers can now choose not only when and how but, also, if they will engage with marketing communications. In combination with lower switching costs, easier access to information about products and suppliers and increased choice, brand loyalty is hard to achieve.
The increasing ineffectiveness of television advertising is due to the shift of consumer attention to the internet and new media, which controls advertising consumption and causes a decrease in audience size.
This has shifted advertising spending online. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message CE behaviour became prominent with the advent of the social phenomenon of online CE.The Psychology of Security.
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Find a list of stakeholder dialogues in here DIALOGUE with politicians. We maintain an ongoing dialogue with politicians to provide information and advice. The IBE regularly produces research publications on a range of topics relating to business ethics in business.
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