How to write references in a research paper

By providing publication information about the sources that helped you write your paper, the reference page both grants proper credit to other researchers and demonstrates your own scholarly diligence, thereby inducting you into the world of academia. Of course, writing a thorough, properly formatted reference page also helps you earn a good grade. Write "References" at the top of the page, centered.

How to write references in a research paper

Introduction It is important to properly and appropriately cite references in scientific research papers in order to acknowledge your sources and give credit where credit is due.

Science moves forward only by building upon the work of others.

How to write references in a research paper

There are, however, other reasons for citing references in scientific research papers. Citations to appropriate sources show that you've done your homework and are aware of the background and context into which your work fits, and they help lend validity to your arguments.

How to Write Guide: How to Cite Other Papers in Your Paper

Reference citations also provide avenues for interested readers to follow up on aspects of your work -- they help weave the web of science. You may wish to include citations for sources that add relevant information to your own work, or that present alternate views.

The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from Hansen and the Council of Biology Editors When to Cite References in Scientific Research Papers You should acknowledge a source any time and every time you use a fact or an idea that you obtained from that source.

Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations. But you also need to cite sources from which you paraphrase or summarize facts or ideas -- whether you've put the fact or idea into your own words or not, you got the fact or idea from somebody else and you need to give them proper acknowledgement even if an idea might be considered "common knowledge," but you didn't know it until you found it in a particular source.

Sources that need to be acknowledged are not limited to books and journal articles, but include internet sites, computer software, written and e-mail correspondence, even verbal conversations with other people in person or by telephone.

All different kinds of sources must be acknowledged. Furthermore, if you use figures, illustrations, or graphical material, either directly or in modified form, that you did not yourself create or design, you need to acknowledge the sources of those figures.

Details of Citing References in your Text When you cite a reference in your text you should use one of the following three formats: According to Rodgersthe Appalachian mountains were formed in three events. The first of the three events occurred in the Ordovician, the second in the Devonian, and the third in the Carboniferous and Permian Periods Rodgers, You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page.

Direct quotations that are more than 4 lines long should be set off from the rest of your paper by use of narrower margins and single spaced lines. If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c If the reference you are citing has two authors, use the following format: Periods of glaciation have a large effect on sea level Ingmanson and Wallace, If the reference you are citing has more than two authors, use the following format: Hot spots are formed by the drift of plates over mantle plumes Vink et al.

If your source of information is from a personal verbal communication, you would use the following format for the first citation from that person: It is possible to correct the raw dD values measured on the mass spectrometer Mark Conrad, Lawrence-Berkeley National Lab, personal communication.

Later citations to the same person can be shortened, as in: If your source of information is from written correspondence a letter or e-mailyou would substitute the word "written" for the word "personal" above, and you would add the date of the letter if dated.

How to write references in a research paper

Personal communications are generally not included in the References Cited or Bibliography section, although unpublished papers, reports or manuscripts should be.

If your source of information has no individual identifiable author, use the name of the organization to which the work can be attributed in place of the author's name: The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from the Council of Biology Editors For internet sources without any identifiable author or date, simply use the URL address as the in-text citation: As New England is located at the convergence of several distinct storm tracks http:Citing References in the Body (Intro and Discussion) of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.

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How To Write A Bibliography For A Research Paper How to Write a Bibliography for a Research Paper. Writing a bibliography is easy by following the format outlined in this article. Learn how to properly cite different resources in the bibliography of a research paper, and how to format those citations, for books, encyclopedias, films, websites.

Aug 29,  · In this Article: During the Research and Writing Process Writing the Reference Page Formatting the Reference Page Community Q&A Once you finish writing a paper, you'll also have to create a reference page that lists all of your sources, whether 72%(46). If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c to the year, in the order in which the different references appear in your paper. References: When providing references in research paper you must inform the readers about the sources you used to cite this information. The reference page is known as the "Works Cited". The reference page is known as the "Works Cited".

Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "References". This section goes at the end of your paper. The references are to be alphabetized by the fist author's last name, or (if no author is listed) the organization or title.

Sep 27,  · To write a research paper, start by researching your topic at the library, online, or using an academic database.

Once you've found at least 5 reputable sources, outline the information you've learned through your research%(). Writing a bibliography is easy by following the format outlined in this article.

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Learn how to properly cite different resources in the bibliography of a research paper, and how to format those citations, for books, encyclopedias, films, websites, and people. numerous examples and explanations for all source types.

Aug 29,  · Edit Article How to Do a Reference Page for a Research Paper. Three Parts: During the Research and Writing Process Writing the Reference Page Formatting the Reference Page Community Q&A Once you finish writing a paper, you'll also have to create a reference page that lists all of your sources, whether they are from books, journals, interviews or websites%(45).

How to Do a Reference Page for a Research Paper: 11 Steps