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Writing Abstracts Writing Abstracts An abstract is a short, objective description of an intellectual resource, usually a written document. Professors guidelines for writing abstracts assign students to write abstracts to accompany their papers. When writing an abstract, it is important to keep in mind the purposes of an abstract.
One main purpose is to provide readers with useful information about a document. Another main purpose of an abstract is to help readers to evaluate and select a document that they would find useful in their own research. An abstract should allow a reader to get the bare-bones information about a document without requiring them to read the actual document.
An abstract is NOT, however, a simple summary of a document; neither is it a critique of a document. Writing the Abstract Because an abstract is a description of an entire document, you can write an abstract only for a document that is complete.
If guidelines for writing abstracts are writing an abstract as part of a class paper, you need to finish your paper before you start working on your abstract.
Keep in mind the ABCs of a good abstract: Accuracy—a good abstract includes only information included in the original document Brevity—a good abstract gets straight to the point, contains precise language, and does not include superfluous adjectives Clarity—a good abstract does not contain jargon or colloquialisms and always explains any acronyms Several writing guidelines can make writing a good abstract easier: Do not refer to the author e.
Seuss argues" Do not refer to what type of document you are abstracting e. If you are writing an abstract for a strictly-structured document like an experiment, investigation, or survey, you will write an informative abstract.
An informative abstract is made up of four parts: Purpose Results Conclusions The purpose section of an informative abstract should state either the reason for or the primary objectives of the experiment or investigation.
The purpose section of an informative abstract might also contain the hypothesis of the experiment. The methodology section of an informative abstract should describe the techniques used in conducting the experiment.
This section should give only as much detail as is necessary to understand the experiment; the abstract should not focus entirely on research methods unless that is the primary focus of the original document. This section should be concise and informative, and only the most important results need be included.
The conclusion section of an informative abstract should state the evaluation or analysis of the experiment results. It should also briefly state the implications of these results. This conclusion section might also state whether the driving hypothesis of the experiment was correct.
A Sample Informative Abstract: One group of subjects knew their clocks had been set ahead, while a second group of subjects was not informed of the change.
Over a four-week period, the subjects who were aware of the clock change regularly arrived on time or late for their scheduled appointments.
Over the same period of time, the subjects who were unaware of the clock change tended to arrive early or on time for their appointments. Data suggest that intentionally setting a clock to run fast does not reduce lateness because one accounts for that extra time in his or her schedule.
The Indicative Abstract A second type of abstract is an indicative abstract. If you are writing an abstract for a less-structured document like an essay, editorial, or book, you will write an indicative abstract. An indicative abstract is generally made up of three parts: Scope Arguments Used Conclusions The scope section of an indicative abstract should state the range of the material dealt with in the original document as well as the starting premise of the document.
The arguments used section of an indicative abstract should state the main arguments and counterarguments employed in the original document.
These arguments should be stated in the same progression in which they appear in the document. Not all documents contain a progression of arguments; in some cases this section may outline analysis or plot progression instead.
This conclusion section might also state plot resolution when the original document is a work of fiction. A Sample Indicative Abstract: Bennet and Charlotte Lucas represent the lack of power possessed by married women of the middle class.
Lady Catherine and Caroline Bingley demonstrate the power of wealthy, single women to occasionally flaunt rules of etiquette. Lydia Bennet represents the risks of female power when bestowed upon too immature a woman, but Elizabeth and Jane Bennet characterize the positive personal and social effects of women who recognize their own power over self.
Also, because you could write an abstract for documents of any size, there are general guidelines about how long your abstract should be: For an editorial or letter to the editor, 30 words or less For a short note or short communication, words or less For a shorter paper or article, words or less For a longer paper, article, or book chapter, words or less For long documents like a thesis or book, words or less While these length guidelines can help you as you learn how to write abstracts, with practice you will develop a sense about what length—and how much description—is sufficient for each individual abstract.
How accurate is my abstract? Is it consistent with the information in the original document?Writing an Abstract: Rules and Technique The abstract is brief note that must be clear and summarizing.
You may use different literature tricks, special procedures, and various writing techniques in the rest of your survey or argumentative essay. First, write your paper. While the abstract will be at the beginning of your paper, it should be the last section that you write.
Once you have completed the final draft of your psychology paper, use it as a guide for writing your abstract.; Begin your abstract on a new page and place your running head and the page number 2 in the top right-hand corner.
An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage.
Why write an abstract? You may write an abstract for various . Abstract. Because on-line search databases typically contain only abstracts, it is vital to write a complete but concise description of your work to entice potential readers into obtaining a copy of the full paper.
This article describes how to write a good computer architecture abstract for . An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage.
Why write an abstract? You may write an abstract for various . Guidelines for Writing Abstracts The Arabic Linguistics Society adopts a modified version of the Linguistic Society of America’s abstract guidelines. Please read thoroughly and carefully.