Refined grains that are immediately accessible check out the food available at the local minimart dominates our snacking, along with refined sugar, and corn syrup refined from corn. Avoiding refined flour and sugar has improved my health!
Tissue affected[ edit ] Isotopic oxygen is incorporated into the body primarily through ingestion at which point it is used in the formation of, for archaeological purposes, bones and teeth.
The oxygen is incorporated into the hydroxylcarbonic apatite of bone and tooth enamel. Bone is continually remodelled throughout the lifetime of an individual.
Although the rate of turnover of isotopic oxygen in hydroxyapatite is not fully known, it is assumed to be similar to that of collagen ; approximately 10 years. Consequently, should an individual remain in a region for 10 years or longer, the isotopic oxygen ratios in the bone hydroxyapatite would reflect the oxygen ratios present in that region.
Teeth are not subject to continual remodelling and so their isotopic oxygen ratios remain constant from the time of formation.
The isotopic oxygen ratios, then, of teeth represent the ratios of the region in which the individual was born and raised. Where deciduous teeth are present, it is also possible to determine the age at which a child was weaned.
Breast milk production draws upon the body water of the mother, which has higher levels of 18O due to the preferential loss of 16O through sweat, urine, and expired water vapour. While teeth are more resistant to chemical and physical changes over time, both are subject to post-depositional diagenesis.
As such, isotopic analysis makes use of the more resistant phosphate groups, rather than the less abundant hydroxyl group or the more likely diagenetic carbonate groups present. Applications[ edit ] Isotope analysis has widespread applicability in the natural sciences. These include numerous applications in the biologicalearth and environmental sciences.
Archaeology [ edit ] Reconstructing ancient diets[ edit ] Archaeological materials, such as bone, organic residues, hair, or sea shells, can serve as substrates for isotopic analysis.
Carbonnitrogen and zinc isotope ratios are used to investigate the diets of past people; These isotopic systems can be used with others, such as strontium or oxygen, to answer questions about population movements and cultural interactions, such as trade.
The carbon in bone collagen is predominantly sourced from dietary protein, while the carbon found in bone mineral is sourced from all consumed dietary carbon, included carbohydrates, lipids, and protein.
It is also important for the researcher to know the variations of isotopes within individuals, between individuals, and over time. Characterization of artifacts involves determining the isotopic composition of possible source materials such as metal ore bodies and comparing these data to the isotopic composition of analyzed artifacts.
A wide range of archaeological materials such as metals, glass and lead-based pigments have been sourced using isotopic characterization.
Interpretation of lead isotope data is, however, often contentious and faces numerous instrumental and methodological challenges. Ecology [ edit ] All biologically active elements exist in a number of different isotopic forms, of which two or more are stable. The ratio of the two isotopes may be altered by biological and geophysical processes, and these differences can be utilized in a number of ways by ecologists.
The main elements used in isotope ecology are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen and sulfur. These analyses can also be used to a certain degree in terrestrial systems. Certain isotopes can signify distinct primary producers forming the bases of food webs and trophic level positioning.
They express the proportion of an isotope that is in a sample. The values are expressed as: Analysis is usually done using a mass spectrometer, detecting small differences between gaseous elements. Muscle or protein fractions have become the most common animal tissue used to examine the isotopes because they represent the assimilated nutrients in their diet.
The main advantage to using stable isotope analysis as opposed to stomach content observations is that no matter what the status is of the animal's stomach empty or notthe isotope tracers in the tissues will give us an understanding of its trophic position and food source.
While all three indicate information on trophic dynamicsit is common to perform analysis on at least two of the previously mentioned 3 isotopes for better understanding of marine trophic interactions and for stronger results.
These shifts may even correlate to seasonal changes, reflecting phytoplankton abundance. While it is not quite certain as to why this may be, there are several hypotheses for this occurrence.
These include isotopes within dissolved inorganic carbon pools DIC may vary with temperature and location and that growth rates of phytoplankton may affect their uptake of the isotopes. A study by Fry studied the isotopic compositions in juvenile shrimp of south Texas grass flats.
The differences between seawater sulfates and sulfides c. Sulfur tends to be more plentiful in less aerobic areas, such as benthic systems and marsh plants, than the pelagic and more aerobic systems.
This can be seen by analyzing the waste of organisms. Numerous studies on marine ecosystems have shown that on average there is a 3. As water travels from septic tanks to aquifers, the nitrogen rich water is delivered into coastal areas. Waste-water nitrate has higher concentrations of 15N than the nitrate that is found in natural soils in near shore zones.GRIN Publishing: academic texts, satisfied authors.
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1 Retinol or retinyl esters 2 See Food and Nutrition Board: National Academy of Sciences, ' 3 Kamm, '82; Kamm et al, ' 4 Rosa et al., ' At least seven case reports of adverse pregnancy outcome associated with a daily intake of vitamin A of 25, IU or more have been published (Rosa et al., '86).
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