Please follow and like us: InHis family moved to Chicago, where he attended high school. When he attended University, Hubble continued to excel in sports such as basketball and boxing, but he also found time to study and earn an undergraduate degree in mathematics and astronomy.
Conception, design and aim[ edit ] Proposals and precursors[ edit ] Astronaut Owen Garriott works next to Skylab's manned solar space observatory, InHermann Oberth —considered a father of modern rocketry, along with Robert H.
First, the angular resolution the smallest separation at which objects can be clearly distinguished would be limited only by diffractionrather than by the turbulence in the atmosphere, which causes stars to twinkle, known to astronomers as seeing.
At that time ground-based telescopes were limited to resolutions of 0. Second, a space-based telescope could observe infrared and ultraviolet light, which are strongly absorbed by the atmosphere.
Spitzer devoted much of his career to pushing for the development of a space telescope.
Ina report by the US National Academy of Sciences recommended the development of a space telescope as part of the space programand in Spitzer was appointed as head of a committee given the task of defining scientific objectives for a large space telescope.
OAO-1's battery failed after three days, terminating the mission. It was followed by OAO-2which carried out ultraviolet observations of stars and galaxies from its launch in untilwell beyond its original planned lifetime of one year.
These plans emphasized the need for manned maintenance missions to the telescope to ensure such a costly program had a lengthy working life, and the concurrent development of plans for the reusable Space Shuttle indicated that the technology to allow this was soon to become available.
InNASA established two committees, one to plan the engineering side of the space telescope project, and the other to determine the scientific goals of the mission. Once these had been established, the next hurdle for NASA was to obtain funding for the instrument, which would be far more costly than any Earth-based telescope.
Congress questioned many aspects of the proposed budget for the telescope and forced cuts in the budget for the planning stages, which at the time consisted of very detailed studies of potential instruments and hardware for the telescope. Inpublic spending cuts led to Congress deleting all funding for the telescope project.
Many astronomers met congressmen and senators in person, and large scale letter-writing campaigns were organized. The National Academy of Sciences published a report emphasizing the need for a space telescope, and eventually the Senate agreed to half of the budget that had originally been approved by Congress.
A proposed precursor 1. Marshall Space Flight Center MSFC was given responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the telescope, while Goddard Space Flight Center was given overall control of the scientific instruments and ground-control center for the mission.
Lockheed was commissioned to construct and integrate the spacecraft in which the telescope would be housed. This design, with two hyperbolic mirrors, is known for good imaging performance over a wide field of view, with the disadvantage that the mirrors have shapes that are hard to fabricate and test.
The mirror and optical systems of the telescope determine the final performance, and they were designed to exacting specifications.
Optical telescopes typically have mirrors polished to an accuracy of about a tenth of the wavelength of visible lightbut the Space Telescope was to be used for observations from the visible through the ultraviolet shorter wavelengths and was specified to be diffraction limited to take full advantage of the space environment.
Therefore, its mirror needed to be polished to an accuracy of 10 nanometers 0. This limits Hubble's performance as an infrared telescope.
Their bid called for the two companies to double-check each other's work, which would have almost certainly caught the polishing error that later caused such problems.
Perkin-Elmer simulated microgravity by supporting the mirror from the back with rods that exerted varying amounts of force. Mirror polishing continued until May NASA reports at the time questioned Perkin-Elmer's managerial structure, and the polishing began to slip behind schedule and over budget.
To save money, NASA halted work on the back-up mirror and put the launch date of the telescope back to October Doubts continued to be expressed about Perkin-Elmer's competence on a project of this importance, as their budget and timescale for producing the rest of the OTA continued to inflate.
In response to a schedule described as "unsettled and changing daily", NASA postponed the launch date of the telescope until April Perkin-Elmer's schedules continued to slip at a rate of about one month per quarter, and at times delays reached one day for each day of work.This list of famous astronomers includes great scientists in history who mastered many fields and modern astronomers who helped popularize astronomy.
Edwin Powell Hubble () Edwin Hubble, for whom the Hubble Space Telescope is named, was one of the leading astronomers of the twentieth century.
His discovery in the s that countless galaxies exist beyond our own Milky Way galaxy revolutionized our understanding of the universe and our place within it. Biography of Edwin Hubble Edwin Powell Hubble was born in the small town of Marshfield, Missouri, USA, on November 29th, Â He died at age 63, on September 28, He was an astronomer who changed the understanding of the universe by confirming that galaxies exist outside of our own Milky Way galaxy.
Edwin Powell Hubble.
was born in the small town of Marshfield, Missouri, USA, on November 29th, More. The following is a partial list of credits for photos appearing on this site.
The site maintainer does not hold copyrights to these images and therefore cannot grant permission for their reproduction. Often lauded as the father of modern cosmology, Edwin Powell Hubble made significant discoveries and had a space telescope named for him.
Edwin Powell Hubble: Biography.