Not only did it witness the end of the slave trade and the inauguration of legitimate commerce, the high tide of European imperial invasion, conquest, and pacification, but it also heralded the introduction of Western education.
Nineteenth-century inventions, such as the pneumatic bicycle tire, and growing industrial uses of rubber products tubing, hoses, springs, washers, and diaphragms created a worldwide demand for rubber.
During boom years, rubber was the most sought-after export commodity and the greatest income earner for many African states.
The African rubber boom lasted from to with significant economic, social, and political consequences for many African states. Exploitation and hardship became standard for Africans in the colonies that produced rubber.
However, the most devastating impact wrought by the demand for rubber occurred in the Congo Free State, the personal colony of King Leopold II of Belgium African rubber came from two sources, trees and vines.
Rubber vines were far less durable than trees. Rubber-producing vines, landolphia, were fragile Africa and colonialism easily killed.
Areas in which rubber was harvested from vines were constantly threatened by the exhaustion of supplies. For example, in Angola, rubber extraction from vines began in the Quiboco forest in ; by no rubber was left in the forest.
Similarly, rubber production from Dahomey now Benin reached a peak of Likewise, in French Guinea, the majority of the rubber vines were used up between and Unlike the vines, rubber trees, Funtumia elastica, were hearty and tolerated frequent tapping.
If the trees were overtapped they went dormant, but they did not die. Generally, within five years an overused tree was once again producing rubber and could be tapped.
Methods of tapping trees to harvest rubber varied greatly from state to state. Early in the rubber boom, in the Gold Coast for example, workers simply cut down the trees to extract as much rubber as possible. Later, they began to climb the trees and tap them with a series of shallow cuts to the tree trunk.
In the Ivory Coast, local people harvested rubber with great care so as to not damage the trees. The never-ending quest for rubber lead to boundary disputes between local peoples. Perpetual warfare broke out over access to rubber-harvesting territories as people crossed indigenous boundaries looking for rubber.
Rubber was acquired by colonial powers either through free-trade practices or by forced labor under the direction of a European-controlled concession company. In the areas in which rubber was bought and sold under free-trade agreements, world prices influenced the collection of rubber.
High prices encouraged traders and harvesters to collect as much rubber as fast as possible. When worldwide rubber prices dropped, so did production; harvesters turned to other pursuits and traders moved on to more lucrative markets.
However, in areas in which rubber production was managed under a system of concession companies, rubber gatherers were not paid market rates for their rubber and the world price of rubber had little effect on demand.
In areas controlled by concession companies, such as the Congo Free State, all rubber was gathered by using forced labor and coercion. When rubber prices dropped, in order to keep profits steady, concessionaires simply increased the quota demanded from rubber gatherers.
Rubber Gatherers in Cameroon. Inspectors check the latex collected by native laborers in in Cameroon. Although the African rubber boom ended in aboutrubber production continued in Africa into the later decades of the twentieth century. He recruited Henry Morton Stanleythe famous Welsh-born explorer of Africa, to seek out and establish several trading and administrative stations along the Congo River and to establish monopoly control over the rich ivory trade in the Congo.
Stanley was instructed to secure treaties from local clan chiefs. Unbeknownst to the local chiefs, they signed documents that ceded their lands and the labor of their people to Leopold.
Based on treaties that Stanley acquired with some chiefs, Leopold was granted the Congo as a personal possession at the Congress of Berlin The Congo region was primarily composed of thick, dense rain forest; however, savannahs and snow-covered volcanic mountains were also part of this terrain.
He designed policies to loot its rubber, brutalized the people, and ultimately slashed the population by 50 percent some 10 million people.
Almost all exploitable land was divided among concession companies. The extraction of rubber was accomplished with the imposition of brutal practices against the local people.
|The myth of Neo-colonialism||The Colonization of Africa Ehiedu E.|
|South Africa - British Colonialism||Uganda RisingMindset Media, Colonialism, in the traditional sense, ended as European countries started fighting over themselves over the world the World Wars and in effect, weakened themselves in the process allowing the United States and Soviet Union to eventually gain in immense power.|
|Ehiedu E. G. Iweriebor – Hunter College||The early attempts of his father, Leopold Ito found colonies in remnants of the Spanish empire in the Pacific or America had failed, and he therefore turned his attention to Central Africa, which was still little known to European geographers and therefore less intensely coveted than West or Southern Africa. He set up his colony the Congo Free State as a private, ostensibly humanitarian venture aimed at limiting the devastation of slaving and the liquor trade.|
|You are here||Scramble for Africa Established empires, notably BritainPortugal and Francehad already claimed for themselves vast areas of Africa and Asia, and emerging imperial powers like Italy and Germany had done likewise on a smaller scale. With the dismissal of the aging Chancellor Bismarck by Kaiser Wilhelm IIthe relatively orderly colonisation became a frantic scramble.|
|Colonisation of Africa - Wikipedia||Programme Director, Comrades, Brothers and Sisters, The effects of colonialism past and present are visible all over Africa.|
The chicotte was a whip made out of raw, sun-dried hippopotamus hide cut into long, sharp-edged corkscrew strips.Rubber, also known as hydrocarbon polymer or latex, comes from plants and vines that once grew abundantly on the African continent. During the nineteenth century, French Guinea, Angola, the Gold Coast, French Congo, and the Congo Free State were among [ ].
South Africa Table of Contents. The British adopted contradictory policies in ruling their newly acquired Cape Colony in the first three decades of the nineteenth century. In July , Lindelani Mashua was sitting quietly in his car.
A handful of people approached, doused it with petrol and set it alight. Mashua, an Uber taxi driver, was burned to death. The.
"The Berlin Conference was Africa's undoing in more ways than one. The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in , the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation .
Colonialism and development in Africa Leander Heldring, James Robinson 10 January This column argues that, contrary to some recent commentaries highlighting the benefits of colonialism, it is this intense experience that has significantly retarded economic development across the continent. Colonialism is neither a European phenomenon, nor is it restricted to the Scramble for Africa (which may itself not have been a completely European phenomenon since . History of Africa, experience the modern and ancient historic past events, people and governments of Africa - Lonely Planet.
Colonialism Establishment of European colonies. The pioneer colonizer in Central Africa was Leopold II, king of the ashio-midori.com early attempts of his father, Leopold I, to found colonies in remnants of the Spanish empire in the Pacific or America had failed, and he therefore turned his attention to Central Africa, which was still little known to European geographers and therefore less.
Public protector Busisiwe Mkhwebane has found that Western Cape Premier Helen Zille has violated the Constitution and “divided society on racial grounds” because of her tweets on colonialism.